Blood Spatter in Oral Surgery: Prevalence and Risk Factors

. 2020 Jun;151(6):438-443.

doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2020.02.026.PMID: 32450982


Background: Oral surgeons are exposed to blood spatter. The authors evaluated the prevalence of and risk factors for blood spatter in facial masks during oral surgery procedures.

Methods: The authors evaluated facial masks and caps of oral surgeons and assistants for blood spatter using the Kastle-Meyer test after different oral surgery procedures. The authors correlated the presence of blood spatter to the clinician, type of surgery, surgery time, and self-awareness of blood spatter, using χ2 and t tests.

Results: The authors analyzed a total of 202 samples and detected blood particles in 46% of the samples in both operators and assistants. The authors observed blood contamination in all types of procedures, and in 4% of the cases, the internal part of the visor was also affected. Clinicians were unaware of the presence of blood spatter in 40% of the cases.

Conclusions: The risk of clinician contamination with blood during tooth extraction and implant placement was 46%. The risk increased with the use of high-speed instruments and longer surgery time.

Practical implications: The use of facial protective devices should be mandatory during oral surgery procedures to avoid blood contamination, especially when rotary devices are used. In many cases, imperceptible blood spatter is present.

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The effect of television distraction versus Tell-Show-Do as behavioral management techniques in children undergoing dental treatments

Quintessence Int 51 (2020), No. 6  (20.05.2020)

Page 486-494, doi:10.3290/j.qi.a44366, PubMed:32253388

Objective: Distraction is a highly acceptable technique for diverting a patient’s attention from what may be perceived as an unpleasant procedure, reducing anxiety and helping the patient relax. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of watching television during dental treatment on pediatric patients’ anxiety and cooperation compared to the commonly used conventional Tell-Show-Do (TSD) behavioral management method.

Method and materials: Sixty-nine children (mean age 6.8 years) scheduled to undergo restorative dental treatment were randomly divided into two intervention groups: a group that was managed by television distraction and a control group that was managed by TSD. During treatment, anxiety was assessed by the Facial Image Scale and cooperative behavior was assessed by the Frankl scale. Pulse rate and oxygen saturation were also measured during the treatment.

Results: Compared to TSD, television distraction significantly reduced anxiety by 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.798 to 1.744, adjusted P < .001), decreased pulse rate by 6.44 beats per minute (bpm) (95% CI 4.60 to 8.28, adjusted P < .001), and significantly increased cooperation by 1.17 (95% CI −1.318 to −1.020, adjusted P < .001). A greater effect of television distraction on reduced anxiety and increased cooperation was observed during administration of the anesthetic injection. No effect of television distraction on saturation levels was noted.

Conclusions: Television distraction is an effective method for reducing anxiety and improving cooperative behavior in children during dental treatments.

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Evaluation of chemical disinfection and microwave irradiation on denture base materials: An in vitro study



Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 282-290

Objective: This study evaluated the effect of chemical disinfection and microwave irradiation on the surface hardness and roughness of two commercially available hard relining materials (Ufi Gel hard, GC Kooliner) and one denture base resin (Trevalon).  

Materials and Methods: A total of 72 specimens (n = 24) were divided into four groups. C: Not disinfected, Cl: disinfected with 4% chlorhexidine solution, Gl: disinfected with 2% glutaraldehyde solution, Mw: disinfected with microwave irradiation (650 W; 6 min). Hardness and roughness measurements were made after polymerisation, 1st day, 14th day and 28th day.

Results: Ufi Gel hard showed an increased roughness after 1st day (P = 0.021) following chemical disinfection and GC Kooliner showed similar results after 14th day (P < 0.05). Microwave irradiation showed a significant increase in surface roughness value after 1st day (P < 0.05) for both Ufi Gel hard and GC Kooliner. Hardness of both Ufi Gel (12.131 to 7.333 VHN) and Kooliner (9.133 to 5.276 VHN) was significantly reduced by chemical disinfection, while microwave irradiation resulted in an increased surface hardness of Kooliner (from 9.126 to 12.713 VHN) and Ufi Gel hard (from 11.698 to 14.940VHN). Results for Trevalon were not significant for both the disinfection methods.  

Conclusions: Microwave irradiation increased the surface roughness and hardness of Ufi Gel hard and Kooliner, while chemical disinfection resulted in a decreased hardness and increased roughness of both hard relining materials. There was no effect of either of the disinfection methods on Trevalon.

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Effect of treatment with a full-occlusion biofeedback splint on sleep bruxism and TMD pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

Bergmann, A., Edelhoff, D., Schubert, O. et al. Effect of treatment with a full-occlusion biofeedback splint on sleep bruxism and TMD pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Invest (2020).



    The purpose of the present study was to analyze treatment outcome with a full-occlusion biofeedback (BFB) splint on sleep bruxism (SB) and TMD pain compared with treatment with an adjusted occlusal splint (AOS).

    Materials and methods

    Forty-one patients were randomly allocated to a test (BFB) or a control (AOS) group and monitored over a 3-month period. Output variables were frequency and duration of bruxing events (bursts) and various pain symptoms.


    The BFB group showed a statistically significant reduction in the frequency and duration of bursts and a statistically significant improvement in the patients’ global well-being and the facial muscle pain parameter. After the treatment was stopped, the BFB group showed a statistically significant reduction in the average and maximum duration but no statistically significant change in the frequency of bursts.


    The tested BFB splint is highly effective in reducing SB at the subconscious level, i.e., without waking the patient, and in achieving improvements in global pain perception. The results suggest that the BFB splint also provides a better treatment option for bruxism-related pain than an AOS. However, further research is needed, and specifically studies with a larger patient population displaying higher levels of pain at baseline.

    Clinical relevance

    By reducing burst duration and therefore the pathological load on the masticatory apparatus, the BFB splint reduces TMD and bruxism-related symptoms and improves patients’ physical well-being. In the long term, this could prevent damage to the TMJ. This study confirms the effectiveness and safety of this splint.

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    Effect of violet LED light on in-office bleaching protocols: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Journal of Applied Oral Science

    Print version ISSN 1678-7757On-line version ISSN 1678-7765

    J. Appl. Oral Sci. vol.28  Bauru  2020  Epub May 18, 2020


    This study evaluated the clinical effect of violet LED light on in-office bleaching used alone or combined with 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP).


    A total of 100 patients were divided into five groups (n=20): LED, LED/CP, CP, LED/HP and HP. Colorimetric evaluation was performed using a spectrophotometer (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, Δb) and a visual shade guide (ΔSGU). Calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P) ratio was quantified in the enamel microbiopsies. Measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), after bleaching (T B ) and in the 14-day follow-up (T 14 ). At each bleaching session, a visual scale determined the absolute risk (AR) and intensity of tooth sensitivity (TS). Data were evaluated by one-way (ΔE, Δa, ΔL, Δb), two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Ca/P ratio), and Tukey post-hoc tests. ΔSGU and TS were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, and AR by Chi-Squared tests (a=5%).


    LED produced the lowest ΔE (p<0 .05="" and="" b="" but="" greater="" led="" promoted="" sub="">14

    ) than HP (p<0 .05="" and="" differences="" for="" groups="" hp="" in="" led="" no="" observed="" p="" were="">0.05). ΔL and Δa were not influenced by LED activation. After bleaching, LED/CP exhibited greater Δb than CP (p>0.05), but no differences were found between these groups at T 14 (p>0.05). LED treatment promoted the lowest risk of TS (16%), while HP promoted the highest (94.4%) (p<0 .05="" and="" cp="" differences="" for="" found="" groups="" led="" no="" of="" p="" risk="" statistical="" ts="" were="">0.05). No differences were found in enamel Ca/P ratio among treatments, regardless of evaluation times.


    Violet LED alone produced the lowest bleaching effect, but enhanced HP bleaching results. Patients treated with LED/CP reached the same efficacy of HP, with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and none of the bleaching protocols adversely affected enamel mineral content.

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    Pelton Crane is Closed!

    Closing for Business, Here for Support
    For over 100 years, Pelton & Crane has been a partner and dedicated resource committed to our customer’s dental journey and ongoing success. Because we’re not an equipment company—we’re a people company.

    Recent changes in the dental industry and the unexpected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic though have made it difficult for Pelton & Crane to continue serving the North American market.

    It is with a heavy heart we announce that we will no longer take any orders effective May 22, 2020.

    New production of Pelton & Crane’s Spirit Dental Chairs, Spirit and Alliance Delivery Units, Helios Dental Lights and Pelton & Crane Cabinetry will be discontinued at this time.

    We will continue to support our current Pelton & Crane customers by honoring our 5-year warranty and will maintain inventory of Pelton & Crane service parts where possible for up to 7 years. All service questions and concerns may still be directed to

    Over the coming weeks we will transition our website to a resource center for existing Pelton & Crane customers. Here you will find information on service and installation support for your Pelton & Crane equipment.

    Thank you for being a valued Pelton & Crane customer and we appreciate your support throughout the years.

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